The National Museum of the Netherlands, or the Rijksmuseum, has been housed on this location since 1885. It recently underwent a ten-year, €375 million renovation. The Rijksmuseum has over 5,000 paintings (including Rembrandt's Night Watch) and has an emphasis on the Dutch Golden Age. But it's not just paintings – there are sculptures, antiques, collections of clothing and weapons, and one of the finest actively-used libraries you'll ever see.
The Dutch architect P.J.H. Cuypers designed this elegant building, and even put himself in the design as one of the statues on the roof.