The National Museum of the Netherlands, the Rijksmuseum, has been housed on this location since 1885. It recently underwent a ten-year, €375 million renovation. The Rijksmuseum has over 5,000 paintings (including Rembrandt's Night Watch), and an emphasis on the Dutch Golden Age. But it's not just paintings - there's sculpture, an exhibition of clothing and weapons, and one of the finest libraries you'll ever see.
The Dutch architect P.J.H. Cuypers designed this elegant building, and even put himself in the design as one of the statues on the roof.
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The layout is good, artwork fantastic and not too crowded.
Gorgeous building - beautifully, sensitively modernized. You really cannot go to Amsterdam and not go to the Rijksmuseum. (And the van Gogh is just a short stroll across the park.)